English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Foundational Skills » Kindergarten

Standards in this strand:

Print Concepts

  • RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonological Awareness

  • RF.K.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    • Recognize and produce rhyming words.
    • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
    • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
    • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.1 (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
    • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Phonics and Word Recognition

  • RF.K.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant.
    • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
    • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
    • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.


  • RF.K.4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

1 Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.